Prof. Dr. Michel Camau (franz. Betreuer) Dr. Eberhard Kienle Prof. Dr Cilja Harders Dr. Sandrine Lefranc Dr. Gilles Massardier Prof. Dr. Mohamed Tozy
Authoritarianism; World Bank; Commissions; Egypt; University Reform; Experts; Policy Transfer; Morocco; Governance
300 Social sciences
This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory.
For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher education has been high on the agenda in both countries. Moreover, the participatory approach – as promoted by international aid agencies like the World Bank as part of its governance agenda – is practised in pushing through unpopular reform measures: In both countries stakeholders from political parties, non-governmental organizations and the private sector took part in the reform process. The establishment of committees and commissions emerged as an important tool for those authoritarian regimes to widen their scope of participation.
It is to be examined how specific instruments, promoted by international organizations and bilateral donors, are integrated into a setting of authoritarian rule. The policy transfer between donors and recipients is relatively smooth as long as it concerns the realm of policies and a rather diffuse way towards internationalization through the implementation of foreign reform instruments in the university sector. Modes of transfer grow more subtle when the realms of power and politics are affected. This book provides an insight into the way authoritarian rulers adapt international reform demands for their own political settings by providing a detailed analysis of reform commissions and committees, their members and their institutional environment. I shall argue that international aid agencies even provide the necessary support for this process of authoritarian consolidation, albeit non-intentionally and rather as an unintended consequence of their engagement.
The comparison of Egypt’s and Morocco’s reform processes by means of an analysis of a specific sector (e.g. higher education) serves as a microanalysis to understand how authoritarian regimes work. It also helps to understand the varieties of authoritarian regimes. Morocco was and is able to formulate a more comprehensive reform of its higher education system. The country demonstrates greater flexibility due to its monarchical system and its pluralistic nature. Egypt under Mubarak only applied a piecemeal type of reform, partly due to its rigid form of pluralism in a quasi-one-party system. Still, Morocco’s flexibility should not be confused with a greater openness of its political arena. It is linked to a specific pattern of pluralism that is reproduced through the aforementioned reform processes.
1. INTRODUCTION 15
2. REFORME ET COOPERATION INTERNATIONALE 52
2.1. L’université entre réforme et transformation : les contours d’une politique publique en Égypte et au Maroc 55
2.1. « Jamais sans un expert » : coopération internationale et modalités de policy transfer dans les processus de réforme 99
3. REFORME ET RECOMPOSITION 149
3.1. La politique de commissions 154
3.2. Le choix des interlocuteurs légitimes et la réactualisation d’un pluralisme autoritaire 183
3.3. Débat, logique d’expertise et éléments de dépolitisation 214
4. LA POLITIQUE DE REFORME ENTRE ACCLIMATATION AUX NORMES INTERNATIONALES ET CONSOLIDATION AUTORITAIRE 241
4.1. La traduction de la norme internationale : entre banalisation et bureaucratisation 245
4.2. Politique de développement et variantes de l’autoritarisme 271
5. CONCLUSION 305
6. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 314
7. ANNEXES 337
8. RÉSUMÉ EN ALLEMAND / DEUTSCHE ZUSAMMENFASSUNG 357
If your browser can't open the file, please download the file first and then open it