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|Vergleich der Karies- und Fluoroseprävalenz in zwei Gebieten mit unterschiedlichem Trinkwasserfluoridgehalt im Iran|
|Main title||Vergleich der Karies- und Fluoroseprävalenz in zwei Gebieten mit unterschiedlichem Trinkwasserfluoridgehalt im Iran|
|Title variations||Comparison of caries and fluorosis prevalence in 2 areas in Iran with different fluorid concentration in drinkwater|
Place of birth: Rezaie, Iran
|1. Referee||Prof. Dr. A. M. Kielbassa|
|Further Referee(s)||Prof. Dr. W. B. Freesmeyer
Prof. Dr. M. J. Noack
|Classification (DDC)||610 Medical sciences; Medicine|
|Summary||The aim of this study from 2004 was to investigate the caries and fluorosis prevalence as well as the fluoride concentration in urine among 12-, 13-, 15- and 16-year-old students in two dentistry unknown areas in Iran. Both areas have different fluoride concentration in their piped water (Orumiyeh 0.3 mg F/l and Pol Dascht 3.2 mg F/l natural fluoridation). Furthermore the students were interviewed about eating habits regarding sweets and their dental hygiene to show risk factors besides the clinical findings.
Data were methodically collected in a cross-section study following the WHO-rules for epidemiological surveys (pathfinder survey). All in all 373 students were examined in eight public schools in Orumiyeh and Pol Dascht by the same examiner. The pupils were examined in their classrooms with a dental mirror and a tongue depressor by daylight. The front teeth were photographed in end-to-end occlusion. The urine was collected in sterile and closeable containers.
The comparison of both areas showed that the ingestion of highly fluoridated water in Pol Dascht had a positive effect on caries prevalence (DMFT of 12-year-old: 0.9 and of 16-year-old: 1.6). In Orumiyeh both results were higher (DMFT of 12-year-old: 1.7 and of 16-year-old: 4.6). The difference between male and female pupils - amongst all ages - regarding DMFS/DMFT was not significant. In Pol Dascht more pupils did not suffer under dental caries compared to Orumiyeh. Additionally a lower level of sanitation (UNT = 78-100%) was observed amongst all pupils in Pol Dascht. Furthermore 76% of all examined pupils in Pol Dascht had a TFI-value of 3 or higher on their upper anterior teeth. Students who moved to Pol Dascht from other areas had much lower TFI-values. In Orumiyeh fluorosis did not impact the dental enamel but the risk to suffer under dental caries was 3.1 times higher than in Pol Dascht. The relative risk to show a TFI-value of more than three was 1.8 times higher for students that did not visit any dentist and it was 2.9 times higher for those that did not brush their teeth compared to those students that brushed their teeth at least once a day.
The average fluoride excrete in urine in Pol Dascht was very high with 7.18 mg F/l compared to Orumiyeh with 1.05 mg F/l. Children with a urine fluoride excrete of more than 1.5 mgF/l had a 4 times higher risk to show a TFI-value of more than 3 on their upper anterior teeth. Those children had even a two times higher risk showing a TFI-value of more than seven.
The study shows that the ingestion of highly fluoridated water (in Pol Dascht) is verifiable by examining the students´ teeth and their urine. The fluoride concentration in piped drinking water should be reduced drastically and controlled on a regular basis in Pol Dascht. A reduction of consumption of piped water and an increased usage of bottled water from other regions seem advisable in Pol Dascht.
Dataobject from FUDISS_thesis_000000009297
|Number of pages||101|
|FU Department||Department of Medicine - Charité - University Medicine Berlin|
|Year of publication||2009|
|Document type||Doctoral thesis|
|Date of defense||2009-06-14|
|Created at||2009-03-31 : 07:55:10|
|Last changed||2010-02-19 : 11:18:42|